Washing is a major part of various activities performed in different industries like the dairy and pharmaceuticals. As we know in the pharmaceutical industry we have to perform cleaning activities all the time whenever we have a change of product or depending on the requirement according to standard cleaning procedures.
- WIP or wash in place is the process where various close equipment are washed without dismantling different parts of the equipment.
Wash In Place VS Clean In Place
According to various guidelines, there is no difference between WIP & CIP but some people suggest that WIP is the process where some manual activities are also performed along with automatic cleaning & CIP is the fully automated process of cleaning where no manual activity is involved.Basic components and working principle is same in both WIP & CIP.
Old Practice Of Washing
In most pharmaceutical industries the washing activity is performed manually in which all the parts of the equipment are dismantled and are washed.After washing all parts are dry & again assembled to use further. This activity is time-consuming and requires more labour & time.
Advantages Of WIP (Wash In Place)
- The washing activity is performed automatically.
- Less labour is required for the WIP process.
- In a short time, full equipment is washed & dry.
- Due to the close system,the washing operator remains safe during washing of any toxic material.
- The WIP or CIP process is GMP compliant.
- WIP or CIP process is 21 CFR compliant in terms of data integrity,we can easily get all the required data.
Components Of Wash In Place (WIP)
WIP or wash-in-place system consists of the following components,
- Storage Tank For Raw Water
- Storage Tank For Hot Water
- Storage Tank For Purified Water
- Storage Tank For Detergent
- Pneumatic Valves
- Transfer Pump
- SS Pipings
- Rotating Balls
- Compressed Air Supply
- Heating System
Storage Tank For Raw Water
Raw water or tap water is the major component which is used during washing using WIP or wash-in-place system.
Raw water is stored in a storage tank from where it is used for washing the equipment.The supply of water is controlled by the single click of button from the HMI of the system.
Storage Tank For Hot Water
Hot water is a good medium to remove various residues in a short period. To supply hot water during a wash-in-place process it 8s stored in a storage tank where it is heated at a required temperature.
Storage Tank For Purified Water
As we know that in pharmaceutical industries all the equipment is washed with raw water or tap water & after washing they are finally rinsed with purified water.
We don’t use purified water for washing because it will increase the cost of our washing operation. That’s why we use it for rinsing.
Storage Tank For Detergent
Food grade detergents are used for washing of various equipment in pharmaceutical industries. In conventional methods of cleaning these detergents are applied manually but during clean in place CIP or wash in place WIP system ,these detergents are added to the required concentration in the storage tank of detergent from where it is automatically supplied to the equipment during washing.
Different types of pneumatic valves are used in WIP (Wash-In-Place) or CIP (Clean In Place) systems. These valves are automatically controlled using air pressure to control the flow of the above-mentioned components.
A transfer pump or transfer motor is basically like the heart & it pumps water & detergent to the equipment which is required to be washed. The pump creates pressure which can be adjusted according to the requirements. A high-pressurized stream of water facilitates good cleaning.
SS transfer pipelines are components of Wash in place or clean-in-place (CIP) systems and are used to transfer water and detergent.
Rotating balls or showering balls are the fittings which are installed at various places of equipment and are used to sprinkle water in all directions.
These balls are designed in such a way that they are free to rotate as water passes from these balls at high pressure. As we increase water pressure, the ball’s rotation is also increased.
Compressed Air Supply
Compressed air provides dual functionality during the wash-in-place or clean in place process, one is to drive pneumatic valves and the other is to facilitate drying at the end of water usage.
Hot air is also an important component of the wash-in-place system and is used to fully dry the components to make them suitable for usage.
Working Procedure Of WIP / CIP
- First of all required fittings are done to ensure close structure.
- A detergent solution is prepared and filled in a storage tank of detergent.
- Then open the pneumatic valve of water depending on the requirement of either tap water or hot water.
- Valves for rotating balls are opened and the transfer pump is turned on.
- The equipment is filled with water up to the level controlled by the sensor.
- When the required level is achieved, the recirculation system is turned on.
- Water is recirculated with high pressure and rotating balls wash inside with detergent and water.
- When the required level of cleanliness is achieved then the drainage valve is opened to drain the water.
- Again more water is circulated to ensure the proper removal of detergent.
- At the end, equipment is rinsed with purified water.
- Now compressed air is turned on to facilitate the drying of equipment.
- Now turn the heating system on to fully dry the equipment.
Validation Of WIP / CIP
The wash in place or clean in place procedure can be validated to exactly determine the following parameters,
- Amount Of Tap Water Used
- Amount Of Hot Water Used
- Amount Of Purified Water
- Amount Of Detergent
- Type & Nature of the detergent
- Time Required For Cleaning
- Reverse Osmosis water purification system.
- GMP vs cGMP and 21 CFR.
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- Why Do We Use Three Batches For Validation