Different Types Of Dosage Forms

The dosage form is the finalized form of a drug product in which it is marketed for use. Dosage forms are pharmaceutical preparations in which active pharmaceutical ingredients and excipients are formulated in such a way that it facilitates the administration and delivery of the API.

Dosage forms may be classified based on the route of administration or physical forms. In this article, we will take a brief overview of different types of dosage forms.

Aerosol

Aerosols are pressurised dosage forms in which liquid or solid drugs are suspended or dissolved in a gas.

The gas used in aerosol is known as propellant.

When we actuate the container a fine mist of liquid or solid contents having one or more API is discharged.

Cachet

A cache is a dosage form in which a dry powder is enclosed in a shell of rice flour.

Cachet is used for administration of drugs which have unpleasant taste.

There are two types of cachet 

  • Wet Seal Cachet
  • Dry Seal Cachet

Examples

  • Sodium aminosalicylate &  Isoniazid Cachet.
  • Sodium aminosalicylate Cachet

Medicated Water

Medicated water is known as aromatic water.Aromatic water is a liquid dosage form and is defined as

Dilute aqueous solutions of volatile oils or volatile substances is known as aromatic water.

Some Aromatic water have therapeutic activity and most aromatic water are used as flavouring agents.

Example

  • Anise water
  • Camphor water
  • cinnamon water

Capsules

Capsule is a solid  dosage form in which medicament  is enclosed in a soft or hard gelatin shell.

Also read

Types and manufacturing of capsules.

Powders

Powders are solid dosage form containing one or more active ingredients intended for internal or external use.

The powders which are used for internal administration are known as oral powders and those which are external muse are known as dusting powders.

Examples

  • Dextrose oral powder
  • Talc dusting powders

Insufflations

Insufflation is a solid dosage form having finely divided powders which are administered into body cavities like nose,ear,tooth socket and vagina using an inserting device known as insufflator.

Granules

Granules is a solid dosage form in which one or more medicaments in powder form are mixed with other excipients like diluents,disintegrants etc and are converted into large agglomerates by using binder solution or application of pressure.

Effervescent Granules

Effervescent granules is a type of solid dosage form in which medicament and excipients are converted into granules containing citric acid and sodium bicarbonate.

Acid and base react with each other in liquid media to release carbon dioxide and medicaments are dissolved in liquid media.

Tablet

Tablet is unit solid dosage form containing one or more active ingredients intended for oral administration.

Tablets are prepared by wet granulation,dry granulation and direction compression methods.

Lozenges

Lozenges are solid dosage forms which contain one or more medications which are dissolved in the mouth.

Lozenges are prepared by moulding or compression methods.

Pessaries

Pessaries are unit solid dosage forms which are intended for vaginal use.The pessaries are manufactured by using bases which remain solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve in vagina.

Suppositories

Suppositories are solid dosage forms having conical or ovoid shape and are intended for insertion into body orifices instead of mouth.

Suppositories are inserted into

  • Vagina
  • Rectum
  • Urethra

Magmas

Magmas are thick,viscous aqueous suspension preparations of insoluble inorganic drugs.

Also Read

GMP vs cGMP and 21 CFR.

Bougie

Bougies are solid dosage forms intended to be administered into nostrils or urethra.

Douche

Douche is a liquid preparation which is used for cleaning nose or vagina.

Draught

Draught is a liquid dosage form contaning very small volume and these are mostly single dose.

Enema

Enema is a liquid oily solution or suspension used for rectal administration.

Emulsion

Emulsion is a dosage form and is defined as a thermodynamically unstable mixture of two immiscible liquids.

Emulsion is a dosage form in which one liquid in form of globules is dispersed into other liquid phase.

Implants

Implants are small sterile tablets which are intended for insertion under the skin by giving a cut to the skin and this cut is stitched after placing the tablet inside.

Implants are used to release the drug slowly, usually for 3-6 months.

Solution Tablets

Solution tablets are solid dosage forms containing one or more active pharmaceutical ingredients which are then dissolved in a liquid to form a solution which is then consumed.

Example

  • Soluble tablets for mouthwashes
  • Soluble tablets for gargles.

Syrup

Syrup is liquid dosage form which is sweet,viscous concentrated solution of sucrose or other sugar in water or in other solvent or vehicle.

Simple syrup only has sucrose and purified water.

Medicated syrup contains medicaments and is used for therapeutic purposes.

Non medicated Syrup is used as a sweetening or flavouring agent.

Example

  • Lemon syrup
  • Tolu syrup

Solutions

Solutions are liquid dosage forms in which active pharmaceutical ingredients and other excipients are dissolved in water.

Suspension

Suspension is a liquid dosage form in which finely divided solid particles are suspended or dispersed in a liquid media.

Suspensions are biphasic liquid dosage forms.

Suspensions are heterogeneous systems having two phases,continuous phase is liquid or semisolid phase and second is dispersed or internal phase and is composed of insoluble matter.

Mouthwash

Mouthwash is liquid dosage form and is also known as oral rinse,mouth rinse.It is a liquid preparation which is held in the mouth for some time for antiseptic or astringent effect.

Creams

Creams are semisolid preparations in which one or more medicaments are dissolved or dispersed in an emulsion system.

Ointment

Ointment is a semisolid dosage form which is used for external application to the skin or mucous membrane.

For preparation of ointment along with API different types of ointment bases are used.

Ointment may be medicated or non medicated.

Ointments are translucent in appearance.

Ophthalmic Ointment

Ophthalmic ointments are sterile preparations which are intended for insertion into eyes.

Paste

  • Pastes are semisolid dosage forms containing a higher percentage of insoluble solids. 
  • Pasts are for external use.

Gels

Gels are semisolid dosage forms containing dispersion of small or large size molecules in liquid vehicles.

Gels are prepared by fusion process.

Gels are also known as jellies.

Tincture

Tinctures are liquid dosage forms which are prepared by dissolving the vegetable drugs in alcoholic solvent.

Spirit

Spirit are liquid dosage forms and are prepared by dissolving the active pharmaceutical ingredients in 90% alcoholic vehicle.

Collodions.

  • Collodions is a dosage form which is liquid preparation and is used externally to the skin.
  • Syrup-like preparation of nitrocellulose in ether and alcohol is known as collodions.
  • Collodions should Store away from fire.

Sprays

Sprays are liquid dosage forms containing medicaments in alcoholic,glycerine or aqueous vehicles.

Also Read

HVAC or Heating Ventilation & Airconditioning System.

Nasal Drops

Nasal drops are liquid dosage forms containing medicaments in liquid vehicles and are intended for insertion into nostrils.

Paints

  • Paints are liquid preparations in which medicament is dissolved in a volatile solvent and have a higher portion of glycerine.
  • Paints are applied to the throat.

Irrigations

Irrigations are liquid preparations which contain medicament and are used for washing blader,vagina or nose to treat the infection.

Linctus

Linctus are sweet vicious liquid preparations having medicinal substances used for expectorant,sedative effect.

Liniments

Liniments are liquid or semisolid preparations which are applied to the skin by rubbing or by friction.

Injections

Injections are sterile preparations in which medicaments are dissolved or suspended in a suitable vehicle.

Inhalations

Inhalations are liquid preparations containing volatile substances.

Lotions

Lotions are liquid suspensions or dispersions used for external application.

Lotions are applied without friction.

Eye Lotions

Eye lotions are sterile preparations which are used for irrigating the eyes.

Eye & Ear Drops

These are sterile liquid preparations in which medicaments are dissolved or suspended in a vehicle and are intended to be introduced into the eye or ear.

Dentifrices

These are preparations which are applied for the cleaning of teeth.

Elixirs

Elixirs are liquid preparations which contain higher alcoholic levels and are for oral administration.

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