Why Do We Use Three Batches For Validation?

In this article, we will discuss the answer to a very common question that arises in the minds of all professionals dealing with the processes that require validation. The question is,

Why do we use 3 batches for validation?

Before the answer to the above question first, we should be aware of validation.

What is Validation?

Validation is documented evidence that ensures that a process or procedure consistently produces a product with the same quality standards.

Validation has great importance in pharmaceutical industries because, for every product manufacturing, we conduct a validation activity.

This process validation assures us that by using the defined process we can consistently get the same quality product.


Why 3 batches for validation

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Validation and types of validation

Basic Concept

  • The conventional practice or basic concept regarding validation is that we should always take 3 batches for validation and if all 3 batches meet the requirements then we can start commercial-scale production.

Now the question is that is there any regulatory requirements for 3 batches?


Why do we take only 3 batches, not 1,2 or 4? 

  • The answer to the first question is that there are no guidelines for the 3 batches concept, even FDA, and ISO have not specified the 3 batches concept.

“FDA guidelines for industry on process validation general principles and practices” does not talk about the 3 batches concept and it also does not specify the number of batches.

  • the number of batches for validation depends on the risk involved.
  • The pharmaceutical industries have to decide the number of batches required for manufacturing.
  • The main purpose for selecting the number of batches is to support the statistical data.
  • For The product for which we have less data we will have to perform validation on more batches.

Justification for 3 Batches.

  • The traditional justification behind the selection of 3 batches is that during manufacturing of the 1st batch, quality may be built in the product accidentally.
  • During manufacturing of 2nd batch quality may be regular.
  • If the same quality is achieved in the 3rd batch it means that our results are consistent and are reproducible so it ensures validation or quality of the 3rd batch gives us assurance that our process is validated.
  • If we get the desired quality standards in the first batch it may be an incident and if we get the same quality in the second batch it may be coincident and if we get the same quality in the third batch it is called consistent.

Why not less than 3?

  • For confirmation of reproducibility we should have sufficient numbers of batches to compare batch to batch variations.
  • If we select 2 batches for validation then we can not compare the data of two batches because comparison between two points always gives a linear line so to show a difference we need three points.
  • So generally we take 3 or more than 3 batches for validation.

Why not More than 3?

  • As we know currently there are no guidelines available for selecting the minimum or maximum number of batches so we can also take 4 or 5 batches.
  • As the number of batches is increased the cost of the process and time required is increased so all pharmaceutical companies usually select 3 batches for validation.


There are no guidelines for selecting 3 batches for validation; we only use 3 batches to show better statistical data for reproducibility.

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